2. Climate change impacts I
Key climate impacts and indirect impacts
In this lecture, we cover the main impacts of climate change. On a given territory, climate change can have basically two types of impacts:
- Direct impacts, such as floods, heat waves etc. These impact directly affect the territory
- Indirect impacts, i.e. impacts which indirectly affect a territory via trade, the movements of population etc. They include population migrations, the risk of war, the destabilization of food markets etc.
Both direct and indirect impacts can affect cities, but the adaptation strategies are competely different.
If you want to know more
- [in French] Observed climate change impacts in France
- The impacts with different levels of global warming
- How we can model the climate on MIT website.
Ecosystems and biodiversity
The reference document on this question
Agriculture and food security
Some reference documents on these questions
- Food Security and Food Production Systems in the 5th IPCC report (2014)
- The special report on climate change and land (2019) of the IPCC
- If you’re interested by the adaptation of coffee farmers in Uganda, here are a few documents:
War and migrations
References cited in the video
- Xu, C., Kohler, T.A., Lenton, T.M., Svenning, J.-C., Scheffer, M., 2020. Future of the human climate niche. PNAS 117, 11350–11355. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1910114117
- Mach, K.J., Kraan, C.M., Adger, W.N., Buhaug, H., Burke, M., Fearon, J.D., Field, C.B., Hendrix, C.S., Maystadt, J.-F., O’Loughlin, J., Roessler, P., Scheffran, J., Schultz, K.A., Uexkull, N. von, 2019. Climate as a risk factor for armed conflict. Nature 571, 193–197. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1300-6
- Climate Change and Conflict Risks by the International Crisis Group
- A nice interactive article by the Guardian
- (in French)A nice interactive article by AFP
- The Uninhabitable Earth (2017) a famous newspaper article describing in great details potential impacts of climate change on earth in unabated GHG emission scenarios. It was later developped into a book.
- Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed (2005) by Jared Diamond. He reviews the causes of historical and pre-historical instances of societal collapse, particularly those involving significant influences from environmental changes.