Trade-Offs and Synergies in Urban Climate Policies: A Case Study in the Paris Urban Area

Abstract

Around the world, cities are at the forefront of climate policies. Land-use planning, urban transport and housing policies are recognised as major tools of both climate change mitigation and adaptation. However, urban climate policies are not developed or implemented in a vacuum; they interact with other economic and social policy goals. These interactions can lead to trade-offs and implementation obstacles, or to synergies and win-win strategies. Despite a growing number of innovative urban climate strategies, little analysis investigating their effectiveness exists, in part because it requires a broad interdisciplinary approach that includes economics, urbanism, climate sciences, engineering and hydrology. Integrated city models can help address this issue.

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